How to Make Carbon Nanotubes?June 15, 2022
It is a well-known fact that Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most exciting nanomaterials globally. But did you know that Sumio Lizima, a Japanese scientist, developed CNT in 1991? Carbon nanotubes are Nanoscale diameter (diameter of around 1-3 nanometers) hollow tubes formed of carbon. It is represented by carbon nanotubes or Bucky tubes 1(another name for carbon nanotubes). To make it, Two-dimensional graphite is folded or rolled into a cylindrical shape to generate nanotubes. From the inside, nanotubes are hollow. The carbon nanotube’s length is substantially greater than its diameter. Nanotube lengths are typically measured in micrometers. Carbon nanotubes are a folded version of the two-dimensional graphene sheet. Carbon nanotubes have exceptional characteristics.
While they sight to be interesting, the process of making carbon nanotubes is intriguing. There are various methods to make carbon nanotubes, and today we are discussing some of the important ones. Let’s begin! Well, let us learn how to make carbon nanotubes!
Synthesis using the arc method
Build a vacuum chamber with a heavy-duty anode and cathode inside. Using a carbon rod as a bridge, remove the atmosphere from the chamber. Arc 220V electricity is sent via the carbon rod. On the anode, carbon nanotubes will form. Change the environment of the vacuum chamber to alter the chemical characteristics of carbon nanotubes. Hydrogen produces sweeter nanotubes, whereas nitrogen produces bitter ones. It is less vital that there be no atmosphere than there is no oxygen, which is good for me because it is easier to create.
Synthesis using Catalyzed Chemical Vapor Deposition
The CVD approach involves taking a carbon source in the gas phase and transferring energy to a gaseous carbon molecule using an energy source such as a plasma or a resistively heated coil. Hydrocarbons such as methane, carbon monoxide, and acetylene are used as carbon sources in the CVD process. The hydrocarbons run through the quartz tube in a high-temperature oven (720 C). The carbon will then diffuse toward the heated substrate, coated with a catalyst (often a first-row transition metal like Ni, Fe, or Co), where it will bond. If the correct settings are maintained, carbon nanotubes will develop.
Synthesis using laser ablation
To perform laser ablation, target a pulsed laser to vaporize a graphite target in a high-temperature reactor while an inert gas is pushed into the chamber. Nanotubes form on the reactor’s colder surfaces as the evaporated carbon condenses. To gather the nanotubes, the device might contain a water-cooled surface. The laser ablation process generates single-walled, primarily carbon nanotubes with a controlled diameter dictated by the reaction temperature and yields approximately 70%. It is, however, more costly than arc discharge or chemical vapor deposition.
Synthesis using Liquid Phase Carbon Nanotubes Purification Method
Centrifugal separation, microfiltration, and chromatography separate multi-walled nanotubes from undesirable nanoparticles or single-walled nanotubes from amorphous carbon contaminants. Preliminary filtering removes big graphite particles, whereas dissolving removes fullerenes (in organic solvents) and catalyst particles. Because it is critical to maintain the CNTs properly separated in solution, they are routinely dispersed with a surfactant before the final separation step.
We hope that this guide has increased your understanding of Carbon Nanotubes Production Methods and motivated you to incorporate carbon nanotubes into your existing processes to improve certain qualities or build CNT-based applications.
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