Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: A Comprehensive Review of Synthesis Methods and Applications

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: A Comprehensive Review of Synthesis Methods and Applications

April 29, 2023 0 By Shilpent

Abstracting Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have gained significant attention in recent years due to their unique properties and numerous potential applications in various fields, including electronics, healthcare, and the environment. This article gives an overview of the various synthesis methods of ZnO NPs, along with a discussion of their applications in diverse sectors.

Introduction Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Zinc oxide nanoparticles are semiconductor materials with unique physical and chemical properties, such as a wide bandgap, high electron mobility, and strong luminescence. These nanoparticles have garnered increasing interest due to their potential applications in electronics, healthcare, and environmental protection. This article will discuss the different methods of synthesizing ZnO NPs and delve into their diverse applications.

Synthesis Methods of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Several approaches to synthesize ZnO NPs can be broadly classified into three categories: chemical, physical, and biological methods.

Chemical Methods

Chemical methods include the use of chemical reactions to produce ZnO NPs. Some common chemical methods include:

  • Sol-gel method involves hydrolysis and condensation of metal alkoxides or metal salts to form a gel, which is then dried and calcined to obtain ZnO NPs.
  • Precipitation method: This involves the reaction of soluble zinc salts with a suitable precipitating agent, such as sodium hydroxide or ammonia, to form ZnO NPs.
  • Hydrothermal method: This approach involves the reaction of zinc salts with water at high pressure and temperature, forming ZnO NPs.

Physical Methods

Physical methods involve the use of physical processes to produce ZnO NPs. Some common physical methods include:

  • Vapor-phase transport (VPT): This method involves the evaporation of zinc and oxygen precursors, followed by their reaction in the vapor phase and subsequent deposition onto a substrate.
  • Pulsed laser ablation (PLA): This technique uses a high-energy laser to ablate a zinc oxide target, forming ZnO NPs.

Biological Methods

Biological methods involve using microorganisms or plant extracts to synthesize ZnO NPs. This eco-friendly approach has gained significant attention recently due to its sustainable and non-toxic nature.

Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles


ZnO NPs have been extensively researched for their applications in electronic devices, such as solar cells, sensors, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The unique properties of ZnO NPs, such as high electron mobility and a wide bandgap, make them ideal candidates for these applications.


The antimicrobial properties of ZnO NPs have made them a promising candidate for various healthcare applications, including wound dressings, drug delivery systems, and anti-cancer treatments. The biocompatibility and low toxicity of ZnO NPs further enhance their potential in this field.

Environmental Protection

ZnO NPs have been widely studied for their applications in water treatment, air purification, and environmental monitoring. Their photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties effectively remove pollutants and pathogens from water and air.


Zinc oxide nanoparticles have emerged as a versatile material with many applications in electronics, healthcare, and environmental protection. While various synthesis methods have been developed, further research is required to optimize these processes and develop new techniques to produce ZnO NPs with desired properties and sizes. As the demand for Zn.